Physics 106bc - Topics in Classical Physics - Electrodynamics
Winter and Spring Quarter, 2022
Course Homepage

Overview and Intended Learning Outcome

From the course catalog:
9 units (4-0-5) ... An intermediate course in the application of basic principles of classical physics to a wide variety of subjects. Ph106a will be devoted to mechanics, including Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of mechanics, small oscillations and normal modes, central forces, and rigid-body motion. Ph106b will be devoted to fundamentals of electrostatics, magnetostatics, and electrodynamics, including boundary-value problems, multipole expansions, electromagnetic waves, and radiation. It will also cover special relativity. Ph106c will cover advanced topics in electromagnetism and an introduction to classical optics.
Ph106bc covers electrodynamics at a level of sophistication beyond the introductory Ph1bc sequence.  You will see much material that is familiar to you, but we will take a more rigorous approach, analyze more challenging physical situations, and also consider many topics not seen in Ph1bc.  It is impossible to emphasize how important the core physics courses Ph106 and Ph125 are: these teach you the basic frameworks and techniques that you must know to do any physics.

This year marks the first time that the EM syllabus (neglecting optics), which for at least 20 years has been taught as a 1.5 term course, will be slowed down and extended to 2 full terms without any increase in the amount of material covered.  Ph106b will be restricted to electrostatics and magnetostatics, and Ph106c will cover electrodynamics including EM waves, special relativity, and radiation.  Classical optics will not be covered.  This change is intended to respond to concerns from prior years that too much material is packed into too short a time period.  The slower pace of the course will hopefully enhance learning and students' enjoyment of the course.

The intended learning outcome of both Ph106b and Ph106c (EM) is for students to acquire the ability to calculate electric and magnetic potentials, fields, energies, and forces in a variety of basic physical configurations combined with an understanding of the underlying physical principles and calculation techniques.  This outcome requires both an understanding of principles as well as the ability to apply them to do calculations! 

Quick Links

Announcements: see Canvas pages: Ph106b, Ph106c (accessible only to students registered for the course)

Syllabus and Schedule, Problem Sets, and Solutions

Below you will find the outline of Ph106bc.  I will update the details of the topics covered in lectures and suggested reading as the term progresses.  Assignments and exams will be made available via Canvas, about a week before the due date, so no effort is made here to list them.

The problem sets and solutions are only accessible via Canvas.  (Lecture notes are available to anyone.)

Note that this is the first year that Ph106bc (EM) is being taught on the 2-term schedule, so please understand the syllabus is refined as the lectures are being given.  The distribution of topics among weeks is not likely to change much, but the distribution of topics among lectures is being worked out as the term progresses.  The specific material covered in each problem set will respond to the evolution of the syllabus, so problem sets will not be posted ahead of time.

Keep a copy of the lecture notes and problem sets handy on your computer or a USB stick.  Websites go down occasionally (seemingly especially during holidays), and a very modest bit of foresight can prevent this from disrupting the problem set due date schedule.  If there is a problem set update, or a lecture notes update relevant to a problem set, at a very late date and there is an outage (in the 24 hrs before a set is due), this policy will be suspended.

In the suggested reading, G stands for Introduction to Electrodynamics by Griffiths, LN for Lecture Notes, HM stands for Classical Electromagnetism by Heald and Marion, and J for Classical Elecrodynamics by Jackson.  Reading given in parentheses is optional (intended only to tell you where material is drawn from).  The numbers in parentheses after each LN section listing and at the end of each day's lecture is the number of LN slides (to manage lecture pace).

Ph106b: Electrostatics and Magnetostatics
Week/TA Monday Lecture Wednesday Lecture Friday Lecture
Jan 3
No PS/OH this week!
Introduction to Course
LN 1.1: Course Material (5)
LN 1.2: Notation (1)
Basic Electrostatics I:
LN 2.2: Assumptions (1)
LN 2.3: Coulomb's Law, Electric Field, Dirac Delta Function (8)
LN 2.4: Integral Form of Gauss's Law (6)
Reading: G 2.1-2.2.1
Basic Electrostatics II:
LN 2.4: Differential Form of Gauss's Law; Dirac Delta Function Redux (6)
LN 2.5: Curl E = 0 (4)
LN 2.6: Techniques (1)
LN 2.7: Electric Potential (5)
Reading: G 2.2.2-4, 2.3.1-2, 2.3.4
Basic Electrostatics III:
LN 2.8: Boundary Conditions (9)
LN 2.9: Poisson's and Laplace's Equations (2)
LN 2.10: Electric Potential Energy (7)
Reading: G 2.3.5, 2.3.3, 2.4
Jan 10
TA: Yanlong
Basic Electrostatics IV:
LN 2.11: Conductors (10)
LN 2.12.1-2: Capacitance (6)
Reading: G 2.5.1-4 (J 1.11)
Basic Electrostatics V:
LN 2.12.3-5: Capacitance cont'd (13)
Advanced Electrostatics I:
LN 3.1: Laplace's Equation (3)
Reading: G 2.5.4 (J 1.11)
Reading: G 3.1.1-3.1.4 (J 1.7)
Advanced Electrostatics II:
LN 3.1: Laplace's Equation (3)
LN 3.2: Uniqueness Theorem (5)
LN 3.3: Method of Images (4)
Reading: G 3.1.5-3.1.6 (J 1.8-1.9)
Reading: G 3.2 (J 2.1-2.5) q
Jan 17
TA: Jaeha
MLK Holiday, no lecture
PS delayed to Tuesday evening
Advanced Electrostatics III:
LN 3.3: Method of Images (cont'd) (7)
LN 3.4: Green Functions (7)
Reading: G 3.2 (J 2.1-2.5)
Reading: (J 1.10)
Advanced Electrostatics IV:
LN 3.4: Green Functions (cont'd) (9)
LN 3.4: Obtaining Green Functions from the Method of Images (9)
Reading: (J 2.6-2.8)
Jan 24
TA: Yanlong
Advanced Electrostatics V:
LN 3.5: Separation of Variables (4)
LN 3.6: Separation of Variables in Cartesian Coordinates (13)
Reading: G 3.3.1 (J 2.9)
Advanced Electrostatics VI:
LN 3.7: Separation of Variables in Spherical Coordinates: General Theory (6)
LN 3.8.1-4: Separation of Variables in Spherical Coordinates w/Azimuthal Symmetry (11)
Reading: G 3.3.2 (J 3.1-3.3)
Advanced Electrostatics VII:
LN 3.8.4-5: Separation of Variables in Spherical Coordinates w/Azimuthal Symmetry (cont.) (12)
Reading: G 3.3.2 (J 3.3)
Jan 31
TA: Jaeha
Advanced Electrostatics VIII:
LN 3.9.1-3: Separation of Variables in Spherical Coordinates w/o Azimuthal Symmetry (6)
LN 3.9.4: Spherical Harmonic Expansion of Green Function (11)
Reading: (J 3.5-3.63.9)
Reading: (J 3.9)
PS/OH this week will focus on 2019-2021 exams and solutions (see Canvas).
Advanced Electrostatics IX:
LN 3.9.4: Spherical Harmonic Expansion of Green Function (cont.) (3)
LN 3.9.5: Examples of using the Spherical Harmonic Expansion of Green Function (7)
Reading: (J 3.10)
Advanced Electrostatics X:
LN 3.10: Multipole Expansion (15)
Reading: G 3.4 (J 4.1-4.2)
Feb 7
TA: Jaeha
Electric Fields in Matter I:
LN 4.1: Polarizability, Bound Charges, and Potential of Polarizable Matter (7)
LN 4.2: Displacement Field, Boundary Conditions (5)
LN 4.3: Linear Dielectrics (5)
Reading: G 4.1.3-4.4.1 (J 4.3)
Electric Fields in Matter II:
LN 4.3: Linear Dielectrics (cont.) (6)
LN 4.4: Boundary Value Problems with Dielectrics (2)
Reading: G 4.4.1
Reading: G 4.4.2 (J 4.4)
Electric Fields in Matter III:
LN 4.4: Boundary Value Problems with Dielectrics (5)
LN 4.5: Electrostatic Energies and Forces on Dielectrics (9)
Reading: G 4.4.2 (J 4.4)
Reading: G 4.4.3 (J 4.7)
Feb 14
TA: Yanlong
Electric Fields in Matter IV:
LN 4.5: Electrostatic Energies and Forces on Dielectrics (8)
Magnetostatics I:

LN 5.2: Lorentz Force, Currents (7)
LN 5.3: Continuity Equation (2)
Reading: G 4.4.4 (J 4.7)
Reading: G 5.1-5.2.1 (J 5.1)
Magnetostatics II:
LN 5.4: Fields and Forces (5)
LN 5.5: Divergence of Magnetic Field (1)
LN 5.5: Curl of Magnetic Field, Ampere's Law (7)
LN 5.6: Potentials (7)
Reading: G 5.2.2-5.4.1 (J 5.2-5.6)
Magnetostatics III:
LN 5.6: Potentials (cont.) (6)
LN 5.7: Boundary Conditions (12)
Reading: G 5.4.1-5.4.2 (J 5.4-5.5)
Feb 21
TA: Jaeha
Presidents' Day Holiday, no lecture
PS delayed to Tuesday evening
Magnetostatics IV:
LN 5.8: Magnetic Multipoles (19)
Reading: G 5.4.3 (J 5.6-5.7)
Magnetic Fields in Matter I:
LN 6.1: Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism (1+)
LN 6.2: Potentials and Fields of Magnetized Materials (9)
Reading: G 6.1-6.2 (J 5.8)
Feb 28
TA: Yanlong
Magnetic Fields in Matter II:
LN 6.3: Auxiliary Field (5)
LN 6.3: Boundary Conditions on Auxiliary Field (3)
LN 6.3: Magnetic Permeability (10)
Reading: G 6.3-6.4.1
Magnetic Fields in Matter III:
LN 6.3: Nonlinear Magnetic Permeability (7)
LN 6.4: Boundary Value Problems in Magnetic Matter (10)
Reading: G 6.4.2 (J 5.8-5.10)
Magnetic Fields in Matter IV:
LN 6.4.4: Boundary Value Problems in Magnetic Matter via Scalar Potential (16)
Reading: (J 5.11-5.12)
Mar 7
TA: Jaeha
W/Th/F OH shifted to M/Tu/W at nominal times; no W 4-6 pm OH
Magnetic Fields in Matter V:
LN 6.4.4: Boundary Value Problems in Magnetic Matter via Scalar Potential (10)
Electrodynamics I:
LN 7.1: Currents and Ohm's Law (4)
Reading: (J 5.12)
Reading: G 7.1.1 (J 5.15)
Final Exam Review during usual lecture time (SG)
Problems from 2019-2021 exams, available on Canvas, will be used.
A poll will be sent out to determine which problems are of most interest.
Reading: N/A

Mar 14
No Lecture
OH by appt

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Ph106c: Electrodynamics
Monday Lecture Wednesday Lecture Friday Lecture
Mar 28
Electrodynamics II:
LN 7.1: Fields, charges and currents in wires (3)
LN 7.2: Motional Electromotive Forces (12)
Reading: G 7.1.1-7.1.3 (J 5.15)
Electrodynamics III:
LN 7.2: Motional Electromotive Forces (cont.) (3)
LN 7.3: Electromagnetic Induction, Faraday's Law (13)
Reading: G 7.1.3 (J 5.15)
Reading: G 7.2.1-7.2.2 (J 5.15)
Electrodynamics IV:
LN 7.4: Inductance (5)
LN 7.5.1-7.5.5: Magnetic Energy (8)
Reading: G 7.2.3 (J 5.17)
Reading: G 7.2.4 (J 5.16-5.17)
Apr 4
TA: Yanlong
Electrodynamics V:
LN 7.5.4-7.5.5: Magnetic Energy (cont.) (6)
LN 7.5.6-7.5.7: Magnetic Forces (5)
Reading: G 7.2.4 (J 5.16-5.17)
Electrodynamics VI:
LN 7.6.1-7.6.2: Displacement Current (5)
LN 7.6.3: Maxwell's Equations in Vacuum (4)
LN 7.6.4-5: Maxwell's Equations in Matter, Boundary Conditions (5)
Reading: G 7.3.1-7.3.4 (J 6.1)
Conservation Laws:
LN 8.1-8.2: Conservation of Charge, Energy (11)
EM Waves I:
LN 9.2.1: Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum (4)
NOTE: LN 8.3-8.4 is being skipped, you are not responsible for it.
Reading: G 8.1 (J 6.7)
Reading: G 9.1 (J 7.1)
Apr 11
TA: Aike
EM Waves II:
LN 9.2.2-9.2.7: Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum (13)
Reading: G 9.1-9.2 (J 7.1-7.2)
EM Waves III:
LN 9.3.1-9.3.4: EM Waves in Nonconducting Matter, Reflection and Refraction (13)
Reading: G 9.3 (J 7.3)
EM Waves IV:
LN 9.3.5-9.3.8: EM Waves in Nonconducting Matter, Reflection and Refraction (12+)
Reading: G 9.3 (J 7.3)
Apr 18
TA: Yanlong
EM Waves V:
LN 9.4.1-9.4.3: EM Waves in Conductors (12)
Reading: G 9.4.1 (J 8.1)
EM Waves VI:
LN 9.4.4: EM Waves in Conductors (cont.) (4)
LN 9.5.1-4: EM Waves in Dispersive Matter (10)
Reading: G 9.4.2
Reading: G 9.4.3 (J 7.5, HM 10.2, 10.4-10.5)
EM Waves VII:
LN 9.5.5-8: EM Waves in Dispersive Matter (5)
LN 9.7.1: Transmission Lines (8)
Reading: G 9.4.3 (J 7.5, HM 10.2, 10.4-10.5)
Reading: G 9.5 (HM 7.1, J 8.2)
Apr 25
TA: Aike
LN 9.7.2-6: Transmission Lines (12)
Reading: G 9.5 (J 8.2)
EM Waves IX:
LN 9.7.7: Transmission Lines (cont.) (4)
LN 9.8.1-9.8.8: Waveguides: General Properties of Solutions (12)
Reading: G 9.5 (J 8.2-8.4)
EM Waves X:
LN 9.8.9-11: Waveguides: Propagation Properties and Example Solutions (13)
LN 9.8.12: Energy in Waveguides (6+1)
Reading: (J 8.5, 8.1)
May 2
TA: Yanlong
EM Waves XI:
LN 9.8.15: Waveguides with Finite Conductivity (16)
Reading: (J 8.5, 8.1)
Potential Revisited:
LN 10.1.1-4: Potential Formulation (8)
LN 10.2: Retarded Potentials (7)
NOTE: LN 10.1.5-10.1.6 is being skipped, you are not responsible for it.
Reading: G 10.1-10.2.1 (J 6.2-3, 6.5, HM 4.5, 8.1)
Potential Revisited:
LN 10.2: Retarded Fields (6+2)
Relativity and Electrodynamics I:

LN 11.2.1-11.2.4: Definitions, Lorentz Transformation (13+4)
Reading: G 10.1-10.2.2 (J 6.5, HM 8.2)
Reading: G 12.1
May 9
TA: Aike
Relativity and Electrodynamics II:
LN 11.2.5-11: Implications of Lorentz Transformation, Four-Vectors, Invariant Norm, Tensors, Covariant and Contravariant Indices (12+7)
Reading: G 12.1
Relativity and Electrodynamics III:
LN 11.2.11-11.2.13: Covariant and Contravariant Indices, Covariant Gradient, Four-Velocity and Velocity Addition (7+2)
LN 11.3.1-11.3.3: Covariant Formulation of EM Sources and Potentials (5)
Reading: G 12.2-12.3
Relativity and Electrodynamics IV:
LN 11.3.4: Transformation of EM Fields (2+3)
LN 11.3.5: Field of a Moving Point Charge (3)
LN 11.3.5-11.3.8: Covariant Formulation of EM Fields and Maxwell's Equations (3+2)
LN 11.4: Relativistic Dynamics with EM Fields (3)
NOTE: LN 11.5-11.6 is being skipped, you are not responsible for it.
Reading: G 12.2-12.3
May 16
TA: Yanlong
Radiation I:
LN 12.1.1-12.1.3: Potentials and Fields of a Fixed-Velocity Point Charge (13)
G 10.3.1 (HM 8.3-8.5)
Radiation II:
LN 12.1.4-12.1.6: Potentials, Fields, and Power Radiated by an Accelerating Point Charge, Bremsstrahlung (13)
Reading: G 10.3.2, 11.2.1 (HM 8.7)
G 11.2.2-11.2.3 are being skipped, you are not responsible for this material.
Radiation III:
LN 12.1.7-12.1.9: Synchrotron Radiation, Lienard's Formula, Larmor's Formula (6)
LN 12.2.1-12.2.3: General Theory of Radiation (11)
Reading: G 11.2 (HM 8.8, 8.6)
May 23
TA: Aike
Radiation IV:
LN 12.2.3: General Theory of Radiation (cont.) (3)
 LN 12.2.3-12.2.6: Electric and Magnetic Dipole Radiation (12)
Reading: G 11.1 (HM 9.1-9.3, 9.8)
Applications of Radiation I:
LN 13.1: Classical Scattering Theory (16)
LN 13.2: Antennas (1)
Reading: (HM 10.1, J 14.8)
Applications of Radiation II:
LN 13.2: Antennas (14+6)
Reading: (HM 9.4-9.5, 9.7, J 9.4)
May 30
TA: Yanlong
Memorial Day, no lecture
PS shifted to Tuesday evening
54. Optional Lecture -- self-study (no in-person or recorded lecture)
Advanced Conservation Laws:

LN 8.3: Conservation of Linear Momentum (9)
LN 8.4: Conservation of Angular Momentum (5) Advanced Potential Formulation I:
LN 10.1.5: Lorentz Force Law in Potential Form (9)
Reading: G 8.2 (J 6.7, 12.10)
Reading: (HM 4.9)
55. Optional Lecture -- self-study (no in-person or recorded lecture)
Advanced Special Relativity:

LN 11.5: Lagrangian Formulation of Relativistic Electrodynamics (7)
LN 11.6: Relativistic Conservation Laws (9)
Advanced Potential Formulation II:
LN 10.1.6: Gauge Transformations and Coupling of Matter to EM Fields (8)
Reading: G 12.2.2-12.2.4 (J 12.1, 12.7, 12.10, HM 14.10-14.12)
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Vital Information

Ph106b and Ph106c have Canvas sites.  Caltech-privileged information, including problem sets and how to access online resources like the class sessions on Zoom or Echo360, will be listed there since it is password-protected.  All public information will be posted to this site.

On Zoom at location listed on Canvas page during first week, 201 E. Bridge second week on, COVID-permitting.

MWF 11:00-11:55 am


Prof. Sunil Golwala, 308 Cahill, Mail Code 367-17.

Office hours: Thursday 9-11 pm, location on zoom (see link on Canvas).  Apologies that these need to be on zoom, but it's still too cold to run 9-11 pm office hours in the outdoor tents.  If no one shows by the end of the first hour, or no one sends an email requesting the second hour, the OH may end early. 

If conflicts prevent anyone from attending the above office hour, other arrangements can be made.  Contact the course instructor.

If you need to contact the course instruction outside of office hours, please try email first.  Meetings can be arranged outside of normal office hours, but spur-of-the-moment meetings are frequently not possible.  Please include "Ph106" in the subject line of your email so that it is recognized and responded to quickly.  See comments below about email and extensions.

Teaching Assistants:

Jaeha Lee
Helena Guan (grader)
Noah Moran (problem sessions)
Yanlong Shi

Office hours:

We will have two problem sessions (on Monday and Tuesday) and two office hours (Wednesday, Friday) each week in addition to the instructor office hours on Thursday.

The office hours will be run by the TA who is grading that week's homework.  See the syllabus above for the relevant TA information.

Monday 8-9 pm, 201 E. Bridge: problem session. 
This is an interactive session in which the students will work together to solve problems.  The session may go past 1 hr depending on student and TA interest, but only attendance at the first hour is required to obtain credit as noted belowIf you cannot attend, email the course instructor to make special arrangements.  The session will be recorded on Echo360.

Tuesday 8-9 pm, zoom: problem session.  This session is intended only for students who are unable to attend the Monday in-person session due to time conflicts, COVID quarantine, or other extenuating circumstances.  A student must be on the COVID quarantine list or obtain prior permission to attend this session in place of the Monday session.  This session will not be recorded.

Wednesday 4-6 pm, Cahill patio tent: office hour, no planned agenda. 
If no one shows by the end of the 1st hour, or no one sends an email requesting the TA stay past the first hour, the OH may end early.

Friday. 3-4 pm, Cahill patio tent: office hour, no planned agenda; intended for last-minute questions for problem set due that day.

If you would like to help on Tuesday, feel free to contact the TAs to arrange a special appointment.

If conflicts prevent anyone from attending the above problem session or office hours, other arrangements can be made.  Contact the course instructor.

The problem session will switch to zoom if in-person instruction is suspended.  The office hours will switch too zoom for that reason or if weather precludes outside office hours.  The zoom links will be available on Canvas and an announcement will be sent in such situations.
Aike Liu
Bannhat Phat (grader)
Noah Moran (problem sessions)
Yanlong Shi

Office hours: Same as for Ph106b except that Monday problem sessions will not be recorded.

Students isolating due to COVID during Ph106b: The following resources are available to ensure such students have access to all the class materials:
  • All lectures and problem sessions will have Echo360 recordings available.
  • Isolating students can obtain extra credit for problem session attendance by informing the problem session TA that they viewed the recording.  The problem sessions TA will ask a question or two concerning the material presented to confirm attendance.  This option is only available to isolating students or to students who have a medical exemption from in-person attendance.
  • The Thursday night zoom OH will be available to all students, including those isolating.  If such students would like an OH earlier in the week, or on Friday afternoon, they can contact the lead TA for the week to make a special arrangement.

Students isolating due to COVID during Ph106c: Currently, there is no expectation this will happen during Ph106c, so no recordings will be made.  Policies will respond if case rates change.

Feedback: I greatly appreciate student feedback; feedback prior to the end-of-term evaluations lets me modify the class to fit your needs.  In person, by email, by campus mail, whatever you like.  There will be a mid-term survey that will provide an opportunity for anonymous feedback.

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Textbook(s) and Lectures

Other texts are included in the Course Reserves, but these are the most useful.

Policies and Grading

The course will use the same policies at Prof. Fuller's Ph106a policies, available from his course's Canvas site.  Refinements and clarifications:
  • Extension requests should be sent to me, the course instructor, not the TAs.  I do not check email continuously, and typically not after 5:30 pm on weeknights (until possibly after 8 pm), so your extension requests must allow time for non-immediate response.
  • You may have one silver bullet extension each for Ph106b and one for Ph106c.  You do not need to request permission ahead of time, just note it at the top of the submitted problem set.  Let us know if it is occurring near the end of term so don't miss giving credit for the work.
  • The grading split will be
    • 50% problem sets
    • 25% midterm exam
    • 25% final exam
  • Extra credit for problem session attendance: To encourage attendance at the Monday problem-solving sessions, we will offer extra credit.  Here are the rules on the extra credit:
    • The extra credit will be added after the letter grade boundaries are decided, so students who do not attend will not be penalized.
    • Students who miss no more than one problem session in Ph106b will be guaranteed one +/- grade increment of extra credit.  Students who attend fewer sessions will receive a proportional point increment.  This may or may not result in a +/- grade increment depending on the details of the person's numerical grade.
    • If you have a time conflict with the problem session time, contact the course instructor to identify an alternate solution.
  • Honor code and Collaboration policy tweaks
    • You may use the previous years' exams and solutions posted on the Canvas website when doing problem sets or exams, but only those!  You may not use previous years' exams or solutions that are not available from this website or the Canvas website.
    • You may use any other materials provided by the instructor or TAs, including material from the problem sessions or office hours.

Ditch day policy (Ph106c): 

  • If ditch day falls on a lecture day, I will reschedule the lecture for the Saturday following ditch day, probably at 2:00 pm.  If ditch day falls on a problem set due day or the day before (Thursday or Friday), the set due date will be delayed to the following Monday, usual time.  If that Monday is a holiday, then the set will be due Tuesday at the usual time.

  • A delayed problem set due date due to ditch day has no impact on later problem set due dates, including 50% credit and silver bullet extensions.  If ditch day falls just before a holiday weekend, pushing the due date to Tuesday, there is the prospect of a very short following week to do the next set.  Plan accordingly by starting the next set over the weekend while finishing the set that was due during the week of ditch day.

  • Office Hours: 
    • If ditch day falls on a Thursday, Thursday and Friday office hours will be rescheduled for Saturday/Sunday.  
    • If ditch day falls on a Friday, then causality requires that we not change the Thursday office hour schedule.
    • If Monday is a holiday, shift the above by one day, availability permitting.  
    • So, for those of you who might be making decisions on acausal information, take account of the above information.
Grade Distributions

Note the very strong final exam vs. midterm exam correlation and the weak total exam vs. homework correlation.  Too much collaboration on homework can leave one unprepared for the non-collaborative exams.

Ph106b (2022 -- updated 2022/03/28; note that all histograms are before extra credit):

Ph106c (2020):

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